## Binary logarithm

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That is, binary logarithm approximation any real number x. The binary logarithm binary logarithm approximation the logarithm to binary logarithm approximation base 2. The binary logarithm function is the inverse function of the power of two function. Historically, the first application of binary logarithms binary logarithm approximation in music theoryby Leonhard Euler: Binary logarithms can be used to calculate the length of the representation of a number in the binary numeral systemor the number of bits needed to encode a message in information theory.

In computer sciencethey count the number of steps needed for binary search and related algorithms. Other areas in which the binary logarithm is frequently used include combinatoricsbioinformaticsthe design of sports tournamentsand binary logarithm approximation. Binary logarithms are included in the standard C mathematical functions and other mathematical software packages. The integer part of a binary logarithm can be found using the binary logarithm approximation first set operation on an integer value, or by looking up the exponent of a floating point value.

The fractional part of the logarithm can be calculated efficiently. The powers of two have been known since antiquity; for instance they appear in Euclid's ElementsProps. And the binary logarithm of a power of two is just its position in the ordered sequence of **binary logarithm approximation** of two. On this basis, Michael Stifel has been credited with publishing the first known table of binary logarithms in His book Arithmetica Integra contains several tables that show the integers with their corresponding powers of two.

Reversing the rows of these tables allow them to be interpreted as tables of binary logarithms. Earlier than Stifel, the 8th century Jain mathematician Virasena is credited with a precursor to the binary logarithm. Virasena's concept of ardhacheda has been defined as the number of times a binary logarithm approximation number can be divided evenly by two.

This definition gives rise to a function that coincides with the binary logarithm approximation logarithm on the powers of two, [3] but it is **binary logarithm approximation** for other integers, giving the 2-adic order rather than the logarithm. The modern form of a binary logarithm, applying binary logarithm approximation any number not just powers of two was considered explicitly by Leonhard Euler in Euler established the application of binary logarithms to music theory, long before their more significant applications in information theory and computer science became known.

As part of his work in this area, Euler published a table of binary logarithms of the integers from 1 to 8, to seven decimal digits of accuracy. The binary logarithm function may be defined as the inverse function to the power of two function, which is a strictly increasing function over the positive real numbers and therefore has a unique inverse.

Using the complex logarithm in this definition allows the binary logarithm binary logarithm approximation be extended to the complex numbers.

As with other logarithms, the binary logarithm obeys the following equations, which can be used to simplify formulas that combine binary logarithms with multiplication or exponentiation: For more, see list of logarithmic identities. Some authors write the binary logarithm as lg n[11] [12] the notation listed in The Chicago Manual of Style.

According to these standards, lg n should not be used for the binary logarithm, as it is instead reserved for the common logarithm log 10 n. In information theory, the definition of the amount of self-information and information entropy is often expressed with the binary logarithm, corresponding to making the bit the fundamental unit of information. However, the natural logarithm and the nat are also used binary logarithm approximation alternative notations for these definitions.

Although the natural logarithm is more important than the binary logarithm in many areas of pure mathematics such as number theory and mathematical analysis[27] the binary logarithm has several applications in combinatorics:. The binary logarithm also frequently appears in the analysis of algorithms[19] not only because of the frequent use of binary number arithmetic in algorithms, but also because binary logarithms occur in the analysis of algorithms based on two-way branching.

This idea is used in the analysis of several algorithms and data structures. The running time of an algorithm is usually expressed in big O notationwhich is used to simplify expressions by omitting their constant factors and lower-order terms. The base of the logarithm in expressions such as O log n or O n log n is therefore not important and can be omitted. In bioinformaticsmicroarrays are used to measure how strongly different genes are expressed in a sample of biological material.

Different rates of expression of a gene are often compared by using the binary logarithm of the ratio of expression rates: Binary logarithms allow for a convenient comparison of expression rates: Data points obtained in this way are often visualized as a scatterplot in which one or both of the coordinate axes are binary logarithms of intensity ratios, or in visualizations such as the MA plot and RA plot that rotate and scale these log ratio scatterplots.

In music binary logarithm approximationthe interval or perceptual difference between two tones is determined by the ratio of their frequencies. Intervals coming from rational number ratios with small numerators and denominators are perceived as particularly euphonious.

The simplest and most important of these intervals is the octavea frequency ratio of 2: The number of octaves by which two tones differ is the binary logarithm of their binary logarithm approximation ratio. To study tuning systems and other aspects of music theory that require finer distinctions between tones, it is helpful to have a measure of the size of an interval that is finer than an octave and is additive as logarithms are rather than multiplicative as frequency ratios are.

That is, if tones xyand z form a rising sequence of tones, then the measure of the binary logarithm approximation from x to y plus the measure of the interval from binary logarithm approximation to z should equal the measure of the interval from x to z.

Such a measure is given by the centwhich divides the octave into equal intervals 12 semitones of cents each. Mathematically, given tones with frequencies f 1 and f 2the number of cents in the interval from f 1 to f 2 is [46]. The millioctave is defined in the same way, but with a multiplier of instead of In competitive **binary logarithm approximation** and sports involving two players or teams in each game or match, the binary logarithm indicates the number of rounds necessary in a single-elimination **binary logarithm approximation** required to determine a winner.

The same number of rounds is also binary logarithm approximation to determine a clear winner in a Swiss-system tournament. In photographyexposure values are measured in terms of the binary logarithm of the amount of light reaching the film or sensor, in accordance with the Weber—Fechner law describing a logarithmic response of the human visual system to light. A single stop of exposure is one unit on a base- 2 logarithmic scale.

**Binary logarithm approximation** logarithms expressed as stops are also used in densitometryto express the dynamic range of light-sensitive materials or digital sensors. The specific change of logarithm base formulae for this are: The binary logarithm can be made into a function from integers and binary logarithm approximation integers by rounding it up or down. These two forms of integer binary logarithm are related by this formula:.

Extended in this way, this function is related to the binary logarithm approximation of leading zeros of the bit unsigned binary representation of xnlz x. The integer binary logarithm can be interpreted as the zero-based index of the most significant 1 bit in the input. In this sense it binary logarithm approximation the complement of the find first set operation, which finds the index of the least significant 1 bit.

Many hardware platforms include support for finding the binary logarithm approximation of leading zeros, or equivalent operations, which can be used to quickly find the binary logarithm. The fls and flsl functions in the Linux kernel [55] and in some versions of the libc software library also compute the binary logarithm rounded up to binary logarithm approximation integer, plus one. For a general positive real numberthe binary logarithm may be computed in two parts.

This reduces the problem to one where the argument of the logarithm is in a restricted range, the interval [1,2simplifying the second step binary logarithm approximation computing the fractional part the mantissa of the logarithm. For normalized floating point numbers, the integer part is given by the floating point exponent, [57] and for integers it can be determined by performing a count leading zeros operation.

In the special case where the fractional part binary logarithm approximation step 1 is found binary logarithm approximation be zero, this binary logarithm approximation a finite sequence terminating at some point. For practical use, this infinite series must be truncated to reach an approximate result.

The log2 function is included in the standard C mathematical functions. The default version binary logarithm approximation this function takes double precision arguments but variants of it allow the argument to be single-precision or to be a long double. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. A copy of the same table with two more entries appears on p. Non-European Roots of Mathematics 3rd ed.

De Variorum Intervallorum Receptis Appelationibus", Tentamen novae theoriae musicae ex certissismis harmoniae principiis dilucide expositae in LatinSaint Petersburg Academy, pp. The same notation was in the 2nd edition of the same book p. Halbleiter-Schaltungstechnik in German 1st corrected reprint, 11th ed. Origins and Foundations of Computing: Design and ImplementationSpringer-Verlag, pp. Integer Logarithm"Hacker's Delight 2nd ed.

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