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Pajamas side, we convert cookiesbinarycookies have convert cookiesbinarycookies tendency to underestimate and convert cookiesbinarycookies things that may kill us. Cancer and convert cookiesbinarycookies disease are known to be the leading causes of deathyet our attention often focuses on convert cookiesbinarycookies scenarios such as dying in an airplane crash. The numbers speak otherwise: There is a 1 in 11 million chances of being killed in a plane crash.
Yet our convert cookiesbinarycookies of being killed in a car crash is 1 in 5, and most of us get into a car on a daily basis without giving it a second thought. Car accidents can be a result of distracted driving, speeding, drunk driving, bad weather, running red lights, car defects, unsafe lane changes, improper turns, tailgating, road rage, bad roads, tire blowouts, fog, and animal crossings.
Most people reading this book either have been in a minor or major car accident or know someone who has. Despite the risks posed by cars and driving, society gains tremendous benefits from people having personal transport vehicles.
Individuals in cities that lack a good public transport infrastructure depend on having a car to get to work and back home and to run errands. From the 12 day traffic jam in China in to the convert cookiesbinarycookies. The issue of pollution and the negative effects on our climate is unquestionable which has led to the public promotion and understanding of the importance of hybrid cars such as the Toyota Convert cookiesbinarycookies, and the Tesla Model S, which is fully electric.
Owning a car may be a luxury to some, a matter of livelihood to others, and a matter of concern for the climate to the collective human race. In the past few years, cars have started to become increasingly connected to serve convert cookiesbinarycookies drivers and passengers.
Safety and entertainment related features that rely on wireless communications are not only becoming popular but expected by new car convert cookiesbinarycookies. Cars are also increasingly catering to reducing emissions to comply with regulations and appease customers who are genuinely concerned for the environment and those who want to convert cookiesbinarycookies gas money.
Unlike many other devices, the interconnectedness of the car can serve important safety function, convert cookiesbinarycookies security vulnerability can lead to the loss of lives. We will convert cookiesbinarycookies examine a low-range wireless system, and then review the extensive research performed by leading experts in academia.
Lastly, we will analyze and discuss features that can be found in the Tesla Model S sedan including possible ways the security of the car can be improved. The Ford Explorer was first put on sale in March It is alleged that Ford engineers recommended changes to the convert cookiesbinarycookies of the car because it rolled over in tests before mass production.
These cars were equipped with tired manufactured by Firestone. The Firestone-equipped Explorers ultimately caused accidents involving deaths convert cookiesbinarycookies more than injuries; in response, Firestone recalled its tires.
TPMS is a system designed to convert cookiesbinarycookies the state of the air pressure inside the tires and report any issues—such as low tire pressure—to the driver. From that, we can easily extrapolate the high number of deaths that are caused on a daily basis by faulty tire pressure. So clearly, well-designed TPMS systems are extremely important.
The system should be able to convert cookiesbinarycookies low tire pressure to the driver, convert cookiesbinarycookies the system should not be vulnerable to other actors who could, for example, influence the system to show a low-tire pressure warning when in fact the tire pressures are in the correct range.
Otherwise, highway robbers within the vicinity convert cookiesbinarycookies a car could make the driver stop in a remote area by activating the low-pressure warning.
Convert cookiesbinarycookies from University of South Carolina performed an in-depth analysis of TPMS and found security design flaws that can be exploited. In this section, we will take a look at their research to understand TPMS and what issues were uncovered. Since TPMS relies on very basic wireless communication mechanisms, it is the appropriate first topic to cover as we learn about the security of connected cars.
The TPMS measure the tire pressure inside all of the tires on a vehicle and alerts the driver of loss of tire pressure. Two different types of TPMS exist: The direct measurement system uses battery-powered pressure sensors inside each tire to monitor the pressure. Since it is difficult to place wire around rotating tires, Radio Frequency RF transmitters are used instead. The sensors communicate using RF and send data to a receiving tire-pressure control unit, which convert cookiesbinarycookies information from all the tire sensors.
ABS can help detect when a tire is rotating faster than the other tires, which is the case when a convert cookiesbinarycookies loses pressure. However, this convert cookiesbinarycookies is less accurate and cannot account for cases when all the tires lose pressure. ECUs are mini-computers that control various aspects of the car.
ECUs transmit information by raising and dropping voltages on the wires. The TPMS architecture consists of a set of components. The TPMS sensors are fitted onto the tires that periodically broadcast the pressure convert cookiesbinarycookies temperature measurements. The low-pressure warning light is also part of the TPMS system. If any of the sensors transmits a reading that indicates low convert cookiesbinarycookies pressure, the system then displays a warning light.
The researchers from the University of South Carolina attempted to analyze the proprietary protocol used between the sensors and the receiving unit. As we will see convert cookiesbinarycookies this section, their approach and analysis is convert cookiesbinarycookies because they manipulated the temperature around the sensors to reverse engineer the protocol.
This type of mindset is critical as it illustrates creativity on part of security researchers. This type of approach can also convert cookiesbinarycookies employed by malicious entities to reverse engineer communication, so it is important that the design of communication protocols and supporting architecture is secure. Modulation is basically the way we facilitate communication over any given medium, such as air or over a wire.
Take for instance our ability to transmit our vocal communications through a medium such as radio. The process of converting our voice to a radio signal so that it can be sent wirelessly is called modulation. In the case of ASK, the amplitude of the wave is changed to a fixed value when a binary symbol of 1 is communicated; the carrier signal is turned off to transmit a binary value of 0. In the case of FSK, the frequency of the carrier signal is changed to a fixed value to represent a 1 or a 0.
They were able to confirm convert cookiesbinarycookies after applying the algorithm to decode Manchester encoded data, which resulted in convert cookiesbinarycookies stream of information containing a known Sensor ID. This is an important mindset in the art of reversing a given architecture, i.
Next, the research team manipulated the sensors by heating the tires with hot guns and cooling them with refrigerators. Then they looked at which bits within the communication changed. They also adjusted the air pressure in the tires. This is another unique and critical step convert cookiesbinarycookies remember when dealing with IoT devices. In the world of software, the idea of influencing the environment around a physical object is not applicable, but it is definitely within scope of the methodology of testing IoT devices that contain sensors which collect information about the physical world.
Using this technique, convert cookiesbinarycookies researchers were further able to decode the stream of communication from the sensors to pinpoint which bits referred to temperature data. The data transmitted by the tire sensors is not encrypted, allowing someone in the vicinity of a car equipped with TPMS to capture the information. The researchers found they were able to eavesdrop on sensor data from up to 40 meters away in cases where the target car was stationary. The feasibility of this is low since sensors only transmit data convert cookiesbinarycookies 60 seconds.
However, the researchers proposed that a tracking system could potentially leverage the fact that sensors convert cookiesbinarycookies to an activational signal at kHz. This means that one could implant a device that would issue the activational signal to trigger the transmission by the sensor. Based on the average speed limit around the area, wireless capture devices could be placed at appropriate distances to capture the data transmitted by the sensors.
In this way, one could cheaply deploy a system for tracking cars at various spots within a given city. The gravity of this example stems from the fact that millions of cars have TPMS and so are transmitting sensor data that can be captured by individuals or devices in the vicinity. Not only that, most people who own TPMS enabled cars have no idea that their cars are transmitting this information.
What makes this research interesting is that it encourages convert cookiesbinarycookies to pause and reflect on how we are going to design interconnected devices in the future. The lesson here is that over-the-air communication of potentially trackable data can compromise the privacy of consumers, especially in cases where the platform is implemented in millions of devices whose shelf convert cookiesbinarycookies is measured in decades.
Furthermore, device manufacturers must do a better job of informing their customers what information is being transmitted and what it could mean to their privacy. However, this can easily be obtained by issuing an activational signal. During the analysis, the researchers attempted to transmit as many as 40 spoofed packets per second and found this arose no suspicion on the receiving unit or the TPMS ECU, even though the expected frequency of a sensor packet is once every 60 seconds.
However, even though these responses from the legitimate sensors contained normal readings, the ECU still flashed the warning signal based on the original spoofed packet transmitted prior to the two activation signals. They were not able to revive the unit and ultimately had to buy a brand new ECU at the car dealership.
This illustrates that the manufacturer of the ECU convert cookiesbinarycookies not invest time into implementing resiliency against unexpected events and malicious spoofed packets.
This case is yet another example of how security needs to be designed into the product at the earliest stages. As we continue to head towards a world full of inter-connected vehicles, we ought to demand more effort into the implementation of security and privacy related controls. Without this requirement, we are going to continue to put our privacy and physical safety at risk. Although some of the news coverage of their work dismissed the impact of their findings because their demonstrations assumed physical access to the cartheir analysis of various ECUs and the CANBus ecosystem of cars is quite useful.
In this section we will couple the ideas presented by both research teams to further our understanding of attack surfaces targeting Bluetooth and cellular networks in cars. Miller and Valasek have done a fantastic job of explaining the structure of CAN data.
It is crucial we understand how the CAN packets are structured so we have a solid concept of how these packets are constructed and computed by various Convert cookiesbinarycookies. The next byte represents the size of the convert cookiesbinarycookies portion of the packet, which in this case is 8.
In the case of Toyota, it was found that convert cookiesbinarycookies last byte represented a checksum value computed by the following algorithm:. The value of the result in decimal iswhich computes to a hexadecimal representation of 0x Here is an example of Python code usually required to initialize tolls written using the project:.
According to the researchers, 1 represents a high speed CAN network and 0 represents that the first connected cable is being used. This gives us good perspective of the high probability of potential abuse convert cookiesbinarycookies an attacker has compromised an ECU that is on the CANBus. The car displays a 6 digit PIN that must be entered on the smart-phone for the pairing to take place.
Prior convert cookiesbinarycookies exploiting the buffer overflow condition, an attacker first needs to pair a malicious smart phone to the car using bluetooth. The researchers explained that this could be done in two ways: In indirect mode, the attacker assumes access to a phone owned by the driver of the car that has already been paired with the Bluetooth system. This scenario would work when the attacker has temporary physical access to the smart-phone, but it is not necessary.
A more plausible scenario is that the attacker can lure the driver of the car to download an app that has been infected. The researchers claim that once the driver with a smartphone that has been paired to the Bluetooth system is lured to download and launch the malicious app, convert cookiesbinarycookies buffer overflow condition can be exploited to take over the ECU responsible for handling the Bluetooth functionality.
In the case of direct mode, the researchers portray a scenario where an attacker who is within the vicinity convert cookiesbinarycookies the car can sniff the car.
When the driver does this, the car displays a 6 digit PIN that the user has to enter on the smart phone.