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The usage and pricing of gasoline or petrol results from factors such as crude oil prices, processing and distribution costs, local demand, the strength of local currencies, local taxation, and the availability of local sources of gasoline supply. Since fuels are traded worldwide, the trade prices are similar. The price paid by consumers largely reflects national pricing policy.
Some regions, such as Europe and Japan, impose high taxes on gasoline petrol ; others, such as Saudi Arabia and Venezuela , subsidize the cost. The largest consumer is the United States, which used an average of million US gallons 1. In a report by Cambridge Energy Research Associates stated that had been the year of peak gasoline usage in the United States, and that record energy prices would cause an "enduring shift" in energy consumption practices.
The total annual distance driven in the US began declining in After Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita , gas prices started rising. They became record high levels.
In terms of the aggregate economy, increases in crude oil prices significantly predict the growth of real gross domestic product GDP , but increases in natural gas prices do not. All the damages from the hurricanes ran up gas prices. In the fifteen years prior to the oil crisis , gasoline prices in the U. Crude oil is the greatest contributing factor when it comes to the price of gasoline. This includes the resources it takes for exploration, to remove it from the ground, and transport it.
Between and , there was an increase in fuel costs due in large part to a worldwide increase in demand for crude oil. The speculation of oil commodities can also affect the gasoline market. In the United States, both state and federal taxes apply to gasoline. In addition, other taxes may be placed on gas including applicable state sales taxes, gross receipts taxes, oil inspection fees, underground storage tank fees and other miscellaneous environmental fees.
The price of transporting crude oil to a refinery then gasoline to a point of distribution is passed on to the consumer. In addition the price to market the fuel brand is passed on. Aside from this breakdown, many other factors affect gasoline prices.
Extreme weather, war or natural disaster in areas where oil is produced can also in turn raise the price of a gallon of gasoline. Legislation by several states for cleaner burning fuel also affects certain areas' prices of gasoline. Furthermore, demand directly affects the price of gasoline. For example, when more people are on the road, typically in the summer months or during holidays, the price will increase.
A real time price of petrol at points of distribution is posted and publicly updated at http: Most European countries have high fuel taxes. Competitive petrol pricing in the UK is led by supermarkets with their own forecourts. Generally each supermarket tends to match the other's prices; the lead players being Asda , Tesco , Sainsbury's and Morrisons. In recent years the AA has criticized the speculators as being the prime reason for fuel fluctuations in the UK.
Subsidies make transport of people and goods cheaper, but discourage fuel efficiency. In some countries, the soaring cost of crude oil since has led to these subsidies being cut, moving inflation from the government debt to the general populace, sometimes resulting in political unrest.
Fuel subsidies are common in oil-rich nations. After widespread labor strikes, the Bolivian government canceled all future planned price hikes. The Iranian government introduced an energy price reform in February The reform was brought forward by the government and approved with some changes by the parliament.
The major aim of the policy was to slow down the increasing trend of energy consumption in Iran by removing the energy subsidies. The plan included electricity, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel subsidies. According to the plan, all energy prices were to increase by 20 percent annually. The price reform was particularly important in gasoline, as consumption had been increasing dramatically creating a huge burden on government budget.
Furthermore, to meet demand, Iran had to import gasoline from other countries, which made the country vulnerable to possible sanctions by the US and European countries. The overall consumption of gasoline after the reform decreased from about 65 million liters per day to about 54 million liters per day.
On 1 January , the Nigerian government headed by president Goodluck Ebele Jonathan, tried to cease the subsidy on petrol and deregulate the oil prices by announcing the new price for petrol as USD 0.
This led to the longest general strike eight days , riots, Arab spring like protests and on 16 January the government capitulated by announcing a new price of USD 0. This serves to quell inflationary pressures in Mexico.
Many residents of US border communities cross the border to buy fuel in Mexico,  thereby enjoying a cheaper fuel subsidy at the expense of Mexican taxpayers. This has caused frequent supply shortages at a number of filling stations along the border for Mexican drivers, especially truck and bus drivers who use diesel. In , Mexico ended its oil industry subsidies, leading to increased prices and widespread protests throughout the country.
Trinidad and Tobago through its national energy agencies Petrotrin and Trinidad and Tobago National Petroleum Marketing Company Limited NP  offers petroleum fuels at varying subsidised prices to the users within the country. There are an estimated , cars in the country as at February and they consume 1. It is thus unclear whether the tax impact on fuel is a net subsidy or not. Given the low price of gasoline, it is distributed free of charge to gas stations.
The move caused violent protest in some areas. Furthermore, in November 18, , the new government led by President Joko Widodo reallocated the government subsidy for gasoline and diesel into nation's infrastructure, education and health budget, hence raised the price of subsidized gasoline and diesel by Rp 2, each, so the price of gasoline and diesel became Rp 8, and Rp 7, respectively.
This decision created inflation and protest throughout the archipelago. People have been encouraged to switch to LPG for cooking, as Indonesia is the world's largest exporter, whereas its oil industry is in decline, and it is now a net importer.
Diesel prices rose by MYR1. The Malaysian government has also announced a one-off cash rebate of MYR per year to Malaysian citizens who own cars with an engine capacity of 3, cc or less and MYR tax rebate to cars with an engine capacity of 3, cc and above to offset the increased costs.
On 22 June , the Malaysian government announced plans to set up separate pumps at its border petrol stations to sell fuel to foreigners at market rates so that only locals can benefit from subsidised petrol.
The new pumps will target Singaporeans and Thais who make day trips across the border to fill their tanks with cheaper fuel there, although Singapore-registered cars must have their tanks at least three-quarters full before they will be permitted to leave Singapore in any case.
A further reduction was made on 1 November However subsidies were still being paid for diesel and natural gas. On 18 November , the Malaysian government made further reductions in the price of gasoline cut pump prices by seven per cent to MYR2.
The government said that at current prices they were making about 30 sen per litre in sales. Then again on 3 December, petrol prices were reduced further. Gasoline prices were reduced 10 sen to MYR 1. The pump price of diesel was also reduced to MYR1.
Since then, RON97 floats with government controlled revision reflecting the global crude oil prices. A drop of MYR0. Two week updates for European countries can be consulted at the website of the Touring Club Switzerland.
Up to date prices for gasoline unleaded are available at http: Pakistan State Oil . Wide protests on petrol price hikes have been frequent in the last 4—5 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article may be confusing or unclear to readers. Please help us clarify the article. There might be a discussion about this on the talk page. May Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Fuel taxes in the United States. Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 6 January Retrieved 25 May US Energy Information Administration. Retrieved 7 August Retrieved 19 June The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 14 February Indonesian police, protesters clash over fuel price hike: Associated Press For Petrol price: Retrieved 20 July Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 5 June Retrieved 22 June Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 19 November Retrieved 16 December Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 8 June Retrieved 20 December