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Alle Linien, welche eine Rohrleitung darstellen, werden gekennzeichnet mit Nennweite, Nenndruck, Medium, Rohrklasse und einer Identifikationsnummer. Regelkreise werden mit Wirklinien dargestellt vom Einbauort der Messung bis zum Stellglied. Wirklinien von Steuer- und Regelungsorganen werden nach EN bzw. Dort sind alle Mess- und Regelstellen der Hauptgruppe B zugeordnet. Man kann und will mit diesem Bezeichnungssystem nicht alle Details festlegen. Zusammen mit der Identifikationsnummer ist eine Referenz zum Instrumentdatenblatt gegeben.
Die Daten werden meist zentral in Datenbanken gespeichert. Symbole werden nach dem amerikanischen Standard ISA dargestellt. Instrumente werden nicht zusammengefasst dargestellt, sondern explizit nach Einzelfunktionen aufgesplittet.
In commerce, it includes any receptacle or enclosure for holding a product used in packaging and shipping, things kept inside of a container are protected by being inside of its structure. The term is most frequently applied to devices made from materials that are durable, humans have used containers for at least , years, and possibly for millions of years.
The first containers were probably invented for storing food, allowing humans to preserve more of their food for a longer time, to carry it more easily. The development of storage containers was of immense importance to the evolving human populations. These were followed by woven baskets, carved wood, and pottery, containers thereafter continued to develop along with related advances in human technology, and with the development of new materials and new means of manufacture.
These Phoenician examples from the first millennium BC were thought to have used to contain perfume. The Romans learned glass-making from the Phoenicians and produced many extant examples of glass bottles. By the beginning of the century, sizes for retail containers such as glass bottles had become standardized for their markets.
In , Frenchman Philippe de Girard came to London and used British merchant Peter Durand as an agent to patent his own idea for a process for making tin cans. The canning concept was based on food preservation work in glass containers the year before by the French inventor Nicholas Appert.
By they were producing their first tin canned goods for the Royal Navy, the standardized steel shipping container was developed in the s, and quickly became ubiquitous. The introduction of computer-aided design made it possible to highly specialized containers and container arrangements. A well-designed container will also ease of use, that is, it is easy for the worker to open or close, to insert or extract the contents.
In addition, a container will have convenient and legible labeling locations, a shape that is conducive to efficient stacking and storing. Pumpe — A pump is a device that moves fluids, or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action. Pumps can be classified into three groups according to the method they use to move the fluid, direct lift, displacement. Pumps operate by some mechanism, and consume energy to mechanical work by moving the fluid.
Pumps operate via many energy sources, including operation, electricity, engines, or wind power, come in many sizes. Single stage pump - When in an only one impeller is revolving then it is called single stage pump. In biology, many different types of chemical and bio-mechanical pumps have evolved, mechanical pumps may be submerged in the fluid they are pumping or be placed external to the fluid. Pumps can be classified by their method of displacement into positive displacement pumps, impulse pumps, velocity pumps, gravity pumps, steam pumps, there are two basic types of pumps, positive displacement and centrifugal.
Although axial-flow pumps are classified as a separate type, they have essentially the same operating principles as centrifugal pumps. A positive displacement pump makes a move by trapping a fixed amount. Some positive displacement pumps use a cavity on the suction side. Liquid flows into the pump as the cavity on the suction side expands, the volume is constant through each cycle of operation.
Positive displacement pumps, unlike centrifugal or roto-dynamic pumps, theoretically can produce the flow at a given speed no matter what the discharge pressure. Thus, positive displacement pumps are constant flow machines, however, a slight increase in internal leakage as the pressure increases prevents a truly constant flow rate.
A positive displacement pump must not operate against a closed valve on the side of the pump. A relief or safety valve on the side of the positive displacement pump is therefore necessary. The relief valve can be internal or external, the pump manufacturer normally has the option to supply internal relief or safety valves.
The internal valve is only used as a safety precaution. Verdichter — A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. An air compressor is a type of gas compressor. Compressors are similar to pumps, both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe, as gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the action of a pump is to pressurize.
The main types of gas compressors are illustrated and discussed below and they can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. Small reciprocating compressors from 5 to 30 horsepower are commonly seen in applications and are typically for intermittent duty. Larger reciprocating compressors well over 1, hp are commonly found in large industrial, discharge pressures can range from low pressure to very high pressure.
Rotary screw compressors use two meshed rotating positive-displacement helical screws to force the gas into a smaller space and these are usually used for continuous operation in commercial and industrial applications and may be either stationary or portable. Their application can be from 3 horsepower to over 1, horsepower, rotary screw compressors are commercially produced in Oil Flooded, Water Flooded and Dry type. The efficiency of rotary compressors depends on the air drier, rotary vane compressors consist of a rotor with a number of blades inserted in radial slots in the rotor.
The rotor is mounted offset in a housing that is either circular or a more complex shape. As the rotor turns, blades slide in and out of the slots keeping contact with the wall of the housing. Thus, a series of increasing and decreasing volumes is created by the rotating blades, rotary Vane compressors are, with piston compressors one of the oldest of compressor technologies.
With suitable port connections, the devices may be either a compressor or a vacuum pump and they can be either stationary or portable, can be single or multi-staged, and can be driven by electric motors or internal combustion engines. A rotary vane compressor is well suited to electric drive and is significantly quieter in operation than the equivalent piston compressor. A scroll compressor, also known as pump and scroll vacuum pump. The fluids may be separated by a wall to prevent mixing or they may be in direct contact.
They are widely used in heating, refrigeration, air conditioning, power stations, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, petroleum refineries, natural-gas processing. Another example is the heat sink, which is a heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium. There are three classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement.
In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side. In counter-flow heat exchangers the fluids enter the exchanger from opposite ends, in a cross-flow heat exchanger, the fluids travel roughly perpendicular to one another through the exchanger. For efficiency, heat exchangers are designed to maximize the area of the wall between the two fluids, while minimizing resistance to fluid flow through the exchanger.
The exchangers performance can also be affected by the addition of fins or corrugations in one or both directions, which increase surface area and may channel fluid flow or induce turbulence.
The driving temperature across the heat transfer surface varies with position, in most simple systems this is the log mean temperature difference. Sometimes direct knowledge of the LMTD is not available and the NTU method is used, double pipe heat exchangers are the simplest exchangers used in industries.
On one hand, these heat exchangers are cheap for both design and maintenance, making them a choice for small industries. On the other hand, their low efficiency coupled with the space occupied in large scales, has led modern industries to use more efficient heat exchangers like shell.
However, since double pipe heat exchangers are simple, they are used to teach heat exchanger design basics to students as the rules for all heat exchangers are the same. Shell and tube heat exchangers consist of series of tubes, One set of these tubes contains the fluid that must be either heated or cooled. The second fluid runs over the tubes that are being heated or cooled so that it can provide the heat or absorb the heat required. A set of tubes is called the tube bundle and can be made up of types of tubes, plain, longitudinally finned.
Shell and tube heat exchangers are used for high-pressure applications. Rohr Technik — It can also be used for structural applications, hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.
In common usage the words pipe and tube are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards.
While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is made to custom sizes. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe, the term tube is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i. In general, pipe is the common term in most of the world. Both pipe and tube imply a level of rigidity and permanence, Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations.
For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed, or where construction is governed by codes or standards, additionally, pipe is used for many purposes that do not involve conveying fluid. Handrails, scaffolding and support structures are constructed from structural pipe. There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture, centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process.
Ductile iron pipes are manufactured in such a fashion. Seamless pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a rod to create the hollow shell. As the manufacturing process does not include any welding, seamless pipes are perceived to be stronger, historically, seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, and was often more available than welded pipe.
Advances since the s in materials, process control, and non-destructive testing, Welded pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam. The weld flash can be removed from both inner and outer surfaces using a scarfing blade, the weld zone can also be heat-treated to make the seam less visible.
Welded pipe often have tighter dimensional tolerances than the seamless type, there are a number of processes that may be used to produce ERW pipes. Each of these leads to coalescence or merging of steel components into pipes. Electric current is passed through the surfaces that have to be welded together, as the components being welded together resist the electric current, ERW pipes are manufactured from the longitudinal welding of steel. Armatur — A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.
Valves are technically fittings, but are discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure, the word is derived from the Latin valva, the moving part of a door, in turn from volvere, to turn, roll.
The simplest, and very ancient, valve is simply a freely hinged flap which drops to obstruct fluid flow in one direction and this is called a check valve, as it prevents or checks the flow in one direction. Modern control valves may regulate pressure or flow downstream and operate on sophisticated automation systems, even aerosols have a tiny valve built in.
Valves are also used in the military and transport sectors, valves may be operated manually, either by a handle, lever, pedal or wheel. Valves may also be automatic, driven by changes in pressure, temperature and these changes may act upon a diaphragm or a piston which in turn activates the valve, examples of this type of valve found commonly are safety valves fitted to hot water systems or boilers. More complex control systems using valves requiring automatic control based on an external input require an actuator, an actuator will stroke the valve depending on its input and set-up, allowing the valve to be positioned accurately, and allowing control over a variety of requirements.